Physics for Animators

$70.99

Physics for Animators

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SKU: 9780415842976 Categories: , ,

Title: Physics for Animators
Author: Bousquet, Michele
Price: $70.99

Achieving believable motion in animation requires an understanding of physics that most of us missed out on in art school. Although animators often break the laws of physics for comedic or dramatic effect, you need to know which laws you’re breaking in order to make it work. And while large studios might be able to spend a lot of time and money testing different approaches or hiring a physics consultant, smaller studios and independent animators have no such luxury. This book takes the mystery out of physics tasks like character motion, light and shadow placement, explosions, ocean movement, and outer space scenes, making it easy to apply realistic physics to your work.

* Physics concepts are explained in animator’s terms, relating concepts specifically to animation movement and appearance.

* Complex mathematical concepts are broken down into clear steps you can follow to solve animation problems quickly and effectively.

* Bonus companion website at www.physicsforanimators.com offers additional resources, including examples in movies and games, links to resources, and tips on using physics in your work.

Uniting theory and practice, author Michele Bousquet teaches animators how to swiftly and efficiently create scientifically accurate scenes and fix problem spots, and how and when to break the laws of physics. Ideal for everything from classical 2D animation to advanced CG special effects, this book provides animators with solutions that are simple, quick, and powerful.

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
FOREWORD
INTRODUCTION
SECTION I: CLASSICAL PHYSICS
CHAPTER 1: MATTER AND MASSES
Matter
Composition of Matter
Atoms and Binding
Nuclear Fusion
Masses
Mass vs. Weight
Center of Mass
CHAPTER 2: MOTION AND TIMING
Motion Lines and Paths
Linear Motion
Circular Motion
Types of Circular Motion
Rotational Motion
Rotation and Distance
Calculating the Number of Times a Wheel Turns
Spinning, Tumbling, and Wobbling
Centripetal Motion
When Centripetal Force Stops
Circular Speed
Centrifugal Force
Centripetal Force and Vehicles
Pendulum Motion
Wave Motion
What Waves Do
Visibility of Waves
Types of Waves
Transverse Waves
Longitudinal Waves
Wave Properties
Amplitude
Wavelength
Frequency
Wave Velocity
Wave Relations
Wave Phase
Wave Addition and Cancellation
Standing Waves
Common Sound Effects
Resonance
Doppler Effect
Sonic Boom
Timing
Timing Tools
Uniform Motion Timing
Slow In and Slow Out
Acceleration Timing
Constant Forces
Forces Exerted by Characters
Constant Force and Acceleration
The Odd Rule
Odd Rule Multipliers
Odd Rule Scenarios
Motion Graphs
Constant Speed
Acceleration
Acceleration of Gravity
Swinging
CHAPTER 3: FORCES
Components of Force
Familiar and Unfamiliar Forces
Familiar, Non-Random Forces
Unfamiliar Forces
Variable Forces
Gravity
Gravitational Acceleration
Common Misconceptions about Gravity
Timing for Gravity
Calculating Total Time and Distance
Physics-Based Calculations
Visual Calculation Methods
The Odd Rule
Fourth Down at Half Time
Falling a la Chai
Moving and Falling
Ascending Against Gravity
Projectile Velocity
Center of Gravity
Line of Gravity
Tipping and Center of Gravity
Lowering and Raising the CG
Friction
Static and Kinetic Friction
Friction on Flat Surfaces
Frictionless Surfaces
Coefficient of Friction
Effects of Friction
Pressure and Gases
Pressure Increase from Heat
Heated Gas in a Container
Heated Air in Atmosphere
Chemical Reaction
Force from Pressure Decrease
Atmospheric Pressure
Air Resistance
Aerodynamic Lift
Pressure Differences in Action
Torque
Torque Basics
Torque Terminology
Maximizing Torque
Visualizing Torque
Calculating Torque
Lever Systems
Efficiency vs. Speed
Neutral Efficiency
Lever System Classes
First Class Systems
Second Class Levers
Third Class Levers
Balancing Torque in a Lever System
Increasing Leverage
Torque in Animation
Rotational Inertia
Action / Reaction
Action/Reaction and Balanced Forces
Action/Reaction with Two Mobile Objects
Action/Reaction and Weight
Action/Reaction and Fixed Objects
Electricity and Magnetism
Electricity
Electrical Charge
Static Electricity
Flowing Electricity
Conductors vs. Insulators
Electric Current
Electric Shock
Sparks and Lightning
Magnetism
Magnetic Fields
Making a Magnet
Electromagnets
Demagnetization
Visualizing Electricity and Magnetism
Electric Shock
Electric Current
Magnetism
EMPs
CHAPTER 4: LIGHT AND COLOR
Light Basics
Light as Rays
Light and Reflection
Seeing in a Mirror
Bouncing Light Rays
Attenuation
Physically Based Lights
Shadows
Cast Shadows
Umbra and Penumbra
Sharp and Fuzzy Shadows
Shadow Angle
Light Source Shapes
Shadow Intensity
Form and Occlusion Shadows
Reflection
Specular Reflection
Diffuse Reflection
Diffuse Reflection and Light Intensity
Detecting Shape and Color
Diffuse vs. Specular Reflections
Diffuse Interreflection
Partial Reflections
Refraction
Caustics
Gamma Correction
Linear vs. Curved Light Intensity
Gamma Correction for Real World Perception
Gamma Correction and Cameras
Gamma Correction on Digital Files
Gamma Calculations
Monitor Gamma Adjustment
RGB Gamma Curves
Linear Workflow
Section II Character Design and Animation
CHAPTER 5: CHARACTER DESIGN
Size and Scale
Proportion and Scale
Weight and Strength
Physical Characteristics and Size
Posture
Deformability
Wing Size and Shape
Climate
Longevity
Sound
Babyness
Joints
Types of Joints
Animal Joints
Joints as Levers
Elbow
Foot
Neck
Muscles for Joints
Weight Distribution
Character Center of Gravity
Balance
Improving Balance
CHAPTER 6: CHARACTER ANIMATION
Jumping
Parts of a Jump
Calculating Jump Actions
Calculating Jump Timing
Jump Magnification
Jump Magnification and Acceleration
Push Time
Push Key Spacing
Motion Arc and Jump Timing
Landing
Stop Time
Very High Jumps
Walking
Poses
Strides and Steps
Walk Timing
Walking and Energy Efficiency
Horizontal CG Shift
Vertical CG Shift
Hip Rotation
Shoulder Rotation
Dancing and Gymnastics
Torque and Turning
Balance with Multiple Characters
Gymnastics Lever Systems
Lifting Weight
Shifting Body Weight
Sitting and Standing
Getting Hit
Fight Scenes
Momentum and Force of Impact
Changing Momentum
Force and Changing Momentum
Action/Reaction and Changing Momentum
Recoil
Tipping Over
Rotational Inertia and Tipping
Tipping and Friction
Drag and Follow Through
Drag
Follow Through
Overlapping Action
Length and Motion
Surface Area and Motion
SECTION III: VISUAL EFFECTS
CHAPTER 7: ENVIRONMENT
Clouds
What’s in a Cloud
Types of Clouds
Cloud Altitudes
Inside a Cloud
Movement of Clouds
Cloud Effects
Cloud Combinations
God Rays
Backlit Clouds
Rain
Rain Formation
Types of Rain Clouds
More about Rain Clouds
Wind and Rain
Where Rain Forms
Predicting Rain
Weather from the West
Raindrops
Falling Raindrops
Invisible Raindrops: Puddle Effects
Slow-Moving Raindrops: Windowpane
Lightning
How Lightning Forms
Cloud-to-Cloud Lightning
Lightning Formation and Appearance
Effects from Lightning
Thunder
CHAPTER 8: FIRE AND EXPLOSIONS
Fire
Flames
Flame Appearance
Creating Flames
Smoldering Solid Matter
Fireball
Mushroom Clouds
Mushroom Clouds in Animation
Smoke
Smoke Appearance
Puffy Smoke
Tendril Smoke
Campfire Smoke
Explosions
Types of Explosions
Life of an Explosion
Before the Explosion
After the Explosion
Role of Containers
Timing for Explosions
Shockwaves
Shockwaves Through Air
Shockwaves Through the Ground
Breakage and Fracture
Anatomy of Fracture
Crack Patterns
Inherent Weak Points
Internal Cracks
Animating Breakage
How Physics Engines Determine Fracture
Flying Pieces
CHAPTER 9: FLUID EFFECTS
Properties of Liquids
Cohesion
Adhesion
Viscosity
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids
Solid/Liquid Behavior of Non-Newtonian Fluids
Surface Tension
Buoyancy
Liquid Appearance
Meniscus
Pouring Shapes
Oceans and Lakes
Waves
Wave Terminology
How Ocean Waves Form
Movement of Waves
Breaking Waves
Floating on a Wave
Ocean and Lake Appearance
Water Reflection
Color of the Ocean
Spray, Mist, and Foam
Shadows on Water
CHAPTER 10: EARTH AND OUTER SPACE
Earth Today
Earth’s Layers
Atmosphere
Atmospheric Levels
Height of Vehicles in Atmosphere
Formation of Earth
Gaseous Earth
Supercontinents
Formation of Modern Landscape
Tectonic Shifts
Volcanism
Bombardment
Erosion
Glaciers
Earth’s Crust
What’s a Rock?
How Rock Forms
Rock Composition
Rock Classification
Causes of Geology
Geology from Magma
Geology from Compression
Geology from Heat and Pressure
Geology from Buoyancy
Geology from Weathering and Erosion
Designing a Landscape
Usual Rock Colors
Unusual Rock Colors
Life on Earth
Fossils
Meteorites and Life on Earth
Evolution and Diversity
Outer Space
Origin of the Universe
Stars
Galaxies
Properties of Galaxies
Nebulas
The Vacuum of Outer Space
Temperature in a Vacuum
Sound in a Vacuum
Radiation

Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Publication date: 22/01/2016
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9780415842976
Publishing status: AU Other [indent]

Additional information

Dimensions 235 × 191 mm

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